Philadelphia – The sit-in at Dewey’s restaurant

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Dewey’s, Philadelphia, 1965 | Uncredited photographer/Windy City Media | 14014

While the Stonewall Inn Riot is widely regarded as a key moment of gay history, there were previous occasions when gay people said “No” and made a stand. One such event took place in 1965 – before Stonewall – in Philadelphia.

On the evening of Sunday, April 25, 1965, staff at the diner turned away more than 150 people they believed to be LGBT. According to the August 1965 issue of Drum magazine, which mixed beefcake pictorials with news for gay men, the restaurant’s staff refused “to serve a large number of homosexuals and persons wearing non-conformist clothing.”

Eventually, three teenagers — two boys and one girl — refused to give up their seats, in effect beginning a sit-in. In the week that followed, LGBT activists used tactics borrowed from the civil-rights movement to put pressure on the restaurant’s owners until the ban was lifted.

Dewey’s was a small, family-owned chain of diners that operated in Philadelphia from the 1940s to the 1970s. The 13th Street and 17th Street locations drew many LGBT customers, especially after the nearby bars closed. The restaurant was known as “Fag Dewey’s” where “you’d find streetwalkers, you’d find drag queens, you would find everybody.” It is understood that the diner’s management had grown tired of a group of young LGBT kids just sitting around, being rowdy and ordering little, so it encouraged its employees to shoo them away.


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The First Gay Pride in Cardiff

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The Gay Pride march through the centre of Cardiff in 1985 | Photographer uncredited/Wales Online | 14015

Wales Online remembers the first Gay Pride March in Cardiff, in 1985.

Dating from 1985, this image, right, depicts South Wales’ first ever gay pride march. It took place in Cardiff with marchers parading down Queen Street to the bemusement of shoppers and pedestrians. According to the editorial piece accompanying the image, “many [onlookers] shook their heads in disbelief – others laughed and laughed away”.

The presence of policemen and placards in this picture may give the impression of a demonstration, but the theme of this march was pride, not protest.

Holding signs which read “Gay love is good love”and “sing if you’re glad to be gay”, these activists envisioned this march in Cardiff as a “coming out” for gay and lesbian activism in South Wales and an occasion to celebrate and affirm Wales’ sexually diverse and gender-blended society.


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Found – Queer political publication from World War II

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Allen Bernstein and his 1940 paper | Drexel | 14031

A previously unknown 149-page manuscript from 1940 defending homosexuality, entitled “Millions of Queers (Our Homo America).” by Allen Bernstein has been discovered. Drexel University’s Randall Sell found the manuscript in 2010 while searching the National Library of Medicine for the earliest uses of the term “queer” in reference to homosexuality.

Mr Sell is an avid and accomplished LGBT history researcher with a track record of unearthing early gay manuscripts.

Bernstein offers a libertarian argument that homosexuals don’t hurt anyone, should not be criminalized and stigmatized and should be left alone to work out their non-conforming lives by themselves. Expressing such a view, and signing his name to it, as Bernstein did in several essays, was a daring, radical act in its day.

Bernstein’s essay is unusual for its use of common, derogatory terms, especially “homo” and “queer”, as casual, value-neutral labels, decades before the term “queer” was reclaimed with pride by LGBT groups beginning in the 1990s.

Bernstein’s document is also a rich source of historical insight into gay culture from the 1920s and ’30s. It offers glimpses into hundreds of lives based on Bernstein’s direct observation and a network of pseudonymous informants. Included are anecdotes about an active Boehmian queer culture in Boston, stories about gay men’s lives in heterosexual marriages, legal persecution of homosexual behavior, and the deaths of queer friends by suicide.


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Chicago remembers gay icons Sally Ride and Cole Porter

The plaque for Cole Porter | Advocate | 14032

New memorial plaques on Chicago’s North Side have been dedicated in commemoration of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender history in time for the US’ Gay History Month. Seven bronze plaques have been added along North Halsted street in Lakeview. The legacy project works to combat anti-gay bullying by celebrating LGBT contributions to history.

Sally Ride | Undated photo: NASA | 14033

The new plaques honour, among others, composer Cole Porter and astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman in space.

Sally Ride died on 23 July 2012, while Cole Porter died on October 15, 1964.


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Reappraising Bayard Rustin

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Bayard Rustin (left) and Cleveland Robinson discuss the March on Washington on 7 August 1963 | Wikipedia | 14035

Lydia Smith in the International Business Times notes that:

One of the most significant figures of the American civil rights movement, Bayard Rustin, born 1912, was the key strategist behind the 1963 March on Washington and taught Martin Luther King Jr the philosophy of pacifism. Historian John D’Emilio wrote in his book Lost Prophet: The Life And Times Of Bayard Rustin: “He did not die under tragic circumstances, as did Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X, two more renowned African Americans who we do remember. Rustin was dismissed during his lifetime as a Communist, a draft dodger, or a sexual pervert. None are characteristics designed to win a revered place in our nation’s history.”

Rustin was a key player in the civil rights movement and was behind all King’s campaigns. He was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, before moving to Harlem and joining the Young Communist League in 1936. An accomplished tenor vocalist, he performed in the renowned Bohemian capital Greenwich Village. Rustin’s career ranged from organising the Journey of Reconciliation in 1947 and the first of the Freedom Rides to test the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel to advocating the Free India movement.

Mr Rustin died in Manhattan in 1987 of a perforated appendix and was survived by his partner of ten years, Walter Naegle. He was given official recognition last year when US President Barack Obama posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

October is Black History Month in the US.


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Reading’s gay history project

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Lorna McArdle, Andrew Stonehill Brooks, Brendan Carr, Yvette Barda and Bobby Smith at the launch of Hidden Voices | Get Reading | 14039

A new project has been launched to research the history of LGBT people in Reading, UK in time for LGBT History Month which takes place in February 2015. (October is the chosen time in the US.) The project has Heritage Lottery funding and will involve local LGBT charity Support U leading research from older members of the LGBT community who remember when it was illegal to be gay.

Lorna McArdle said: “Support U is dedicated to supporting the LGBT community and this project will assist our organisation in seeing a real picture of the cultural past and present. The older generation is still detached from the LGBT community at large and we would like to bridge that gap with this project. It is only right that we make sure the history of the LGBT community is shown, to highlight just how far we have come towards acceptance.”


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Leather Daddies and Rainbow Crossings – welcome to San Francisco’s new-look Castro

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Leather enthusiasts at the 1978 San Francisco Gay Day Parade | San Francisco Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society | 14040

Writing in Mission Local, Daniel Hirsch is concerned that marking gay places as historic places is counter productive and diminishes or alters the history.

At a time when bars and other queer spaces are struggling to stay open, the approach some groups are taking to mark LGBT history also has the potential to forever alter, and possibly diminish, surviving spaces. The fear is that by marking a place as historic, its current inhabitants may get pushed out to make more room for all the memories.

In the Castro district, not all residents are happy with the redevelopment of their area.

The rainbow crossing designs | Castro Biscuit | 14041

In the Castro, there’s a current plan by the Department of Public Works and the Castro/Upper Market Community Benefit District to paint the district’s crosswalks in rainbow colors. It might seem at first glance like a whimsical way to celebrate the neighborhood’s queer history and culture. But for some, being somewhere over these rainbows represents further gentrification and worse, “Disneyfication.”

“How many more rainbows do we need, I mean, jesus,” said Waiyde Palmer, a contributor to the Castro Biscuit and Castro-resident since 1986. “I’m fine with a little bit of fey, but the rainbow crosswalks are the equivalent of a cheap souvenir T-shirt, like, ‘I went to the Castro, and all I got was this rainbow crosswalk.’”

Rainbow crosswalks date back to 2008, when efforts of the Castro Castro/Upper Market Community Benefit District coalesced with the city’s plans to repave roads and improve sidewalks, in a large effort called the Castro Street Improvement Project. (The Castro CBD, one of many in the city, is a special business district funded by a special tax, made up of merchants organized to improve the neighborhood as they see fit.)

In conjunction with the Planning Department and Department of Public Works, the Castro CBD took on the task of “beautifying” the neighborhood. Through a process of public input and outreach, this means the improvement project will include the following decorative elements: 20 sidewalk etchings featuring highlights of Castro history, as well as decorative LED sidewalk lights, and those rainbow-colored crosswalks.


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Charlotte and the Angels of America

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Fort Worth Opera in a performance of Tony Kushner’s “Angels in America” opera version, 2008 | Ellen Appel | 14042

The Levine Museum of the New South, in Charlotte, N.C., recently unveiled a history exhibit, “LGBTQ Perspectives on Equality” to tell the history of Charlotte, N.C.’s, gay and transgender community. 18,000 same-sex couples call the state home, including 2,000 in the Charlotte area, according to the 2010 U.S. Census.

The exhibition casts fresh light on the “Angels of America” controversy.

In 1996 a brouhaha erupted when some county officials objected to gay themes presented in a local performance of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play “Angels in America.” The controversy led to a vote in 1997 to restrict funding to the Arts & Science Council. The move gave the city a reputation for being intolerant.

Bob Barret, a professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, took a high-profile stand for the gay community during the “Angels in America” affair, helping to create an organization called Citizens for Equality, which staged a defiant news conference on the steps of City Hall.

“I don’t know that it changed anything, but we were visible and saying, ‘We don’t like what’s going on,’” says Barret, who had challenged the Observer’s coverage of the gay community as far back as 1992, when he met with editors at the newspaper. “The media didn’t have a clue who gay people are, because people weren’t willing to stand up. Once we started to do that, attitudes changed fairly quickly. Still, there were death threats, and awful stuff was sent in the mail to me. And stuff was left on my car. People in charge at the university told me, ‘You need to be very careful. People are watching you, waiting for you to make a mistake.’”

University of North Charlotte Multicultural Resource Center | 14043

Book shop proprietor Sue Henry was perhaps the city’s most high-profile LGBT representative of the ’90s, and was the first openly gay candidate for mayor of Charlotte, in 1995.

Her store, Rising Moon Books & Beyond, became a meeting place for gays and lesbians during the “Angels in America” controversy, with groups gathering among the books to make placards for their demonstrations. She likens it to the city’s first LGBT community center. It closed in 1997. Henry was also involved in bringing the annual North.Carolina gay and lesbian pride event to Charlotte in 1994, which she says made local gays and lesbians aware of “what we can do when we came together.” “I don’t feel especially brave. Maybe I’m stubborn,” says Henry, who currently lives in Greenville, N.C. “For the first couple of years I had the bookstore, I would go in expecting the windows to be broken out by a brick, but it never happened. It’s that worry, that fear, that often stops the LGBT community.”


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The John West Murder Case

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Gwynne Owen Evans (left), 24, and Peter Anthony Allen, 21. Prison Service Photos/Liverpool Echo | 14044

On 7th April, 1964, two unemployed men, who could not afford to pay £10 in court fines imposed on them for earlier thefts, murdered a man. Peter Allen, age 21, and Gwynne Evans, age 24, drove to the home of John West, age 53, a laundry van driver of Seaton, Cumbria.

Evans left Allen in the car while he tried to persuade Mr West to give them £10 in return for sex. Mr West declined. Evans went back to the car and fetched Allen. West saw Allen and asked him, “Who the bloody hell are you?” When Allen did not answer, West made a lunge at him. Allen panicked and hit West. Then Evans battered West with a bar.

Mr West’s battered and stabbed body, which was naked from the waist down, was found by Police one day later – 8th April, 1964. Police found Evans’ rain coat at the scene, and identified it as belonging to Evans when they found in one of the pockets, a medallion bearing Evans’ name.

Each man blamed the other for the violent murder.

Mr Justice Ashworth sentenced them both to death.

Their defence teams appealed. Lord Chief Justice Lord Parker, Mr Justice Winn and Mr Justice Widgery rejected the appeals of Allen and Evans, with the Lord Chief Justice saying: “A more brutal murder it would be difficult to imagine.”

Both Allen’s and Evans’ mothers petitioned then Home Secretary Henry Brooke for clemency. Clemency was not forthcoming.

Evans was hanged at Strangeways Prison, Manchester, by executioner Harry Allen (no relation) while Allen, who had trashed his cell when he realised that clemency was not forthcoming, was hanged at Walton Jail, Liverpool, by executioner Robert Stewart. Both men were hanged at exactly 8.00 am on August 13th, 1964.

In 1964 in Britain, homosexuality between men was illegal.

On 15th October 1964 Britain had a General Election which was won by the Labour Party. The incoming government had a reforming agenda and the death penalty for murder was temporarily suspended for a trial period by the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965. The Act did not suspend the death penalty for other offences, which included espionage and piracy.

On 16th December 1969, Parliament reviewed the temporary suspension and voted to end the death penalty for murder by an overwhelming majority: 343 in favour, 185 against, a majority of 158.

At that point Evans and Allen went into the history books because they became the last people in Britain to be hanged. The case became known as the Allens and Evans case and their victim West became completely forgotten.

£10 may not seem like much money in 2014, but in 1964 it was more than the average basic weekly wage.

The death penalty was finally abolished in the United Kingdom in 1998 by the Human Rights Act and the Crime and Disorder Act.


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The Long Beach Bath House

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Frontiers Los Angeles | 14046

Frontiers LA reminds us of the history of The Long Beach Bathhouse which was a popular cruising spot in 1914, and of the tragic consequences for some customers.

The bathhouse attracted all types of beachgoers, including men who thought a rendezvous was worth the risk of arrest. In November 1914, a police sting netted dozens of cruisers. Curiously, the state’s sodomy laws did not cover oral sex, so the majority of men were charged with ambiguous “social vagrancy” misdemeanors. While one person, a florist named Herbert Lowe, fought the charges, most pleaded guilty and paid a fine. Tragically, two of the arrestees committed suicide, including a respected banker named John Lamb.


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